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All you need to know about acne


Acne is one of the most common skin problems in teens and young adults, but can also affect people of all ages. It often appears as pimples, blackheads, blackheads or cysts on the face, neck, back, shoulders or chest. In this article, we will explore the causes, symptoms, types and treatments of acne.


Causes of acne:

Acne is a common skin condition that is often caused by the excessive production of sebum, an oily substance produced by the skin's oil glands. However, the exact causes of acne are not yet fully understood. Here are some of the main causes of acne:

  1. Excessive sebum production: The sebaceous glands produce sebum to moisturize the skin and hair. However, excessive sebum production can clog the skin's pores, leading to the formation of blackheads (blackheads or whiteheads).

  2. Bacteria: The presence of bacteria on the skin, especially Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes), can lead to inflamed comedones and red pimples.

  3. Hormones: Hormones play an important role in the development of acne. For men, androgens, the male sex hormones, can stimulate sebum production, which can contribute to the development of acne in adolescents and adults. For women, hormonal fluctuations in a woman's body can cause excessive sebum production, which can clog the pores of the skin and lead to the development of acne. For example, hormonal changes that occur during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy or menopause can cause acne breakouts in women. Androgenic hormones, such as testosterone, can also play an important role in the development of acne in women.

  4. Genetic factors: A family history of acne may increase the risk of developing the condition.

  5. Dead skin cells: Dead skin cells can build up on the surface of the skin and clog pores.

  6. Medications: Some medications can cause acne to appear as a side effect.

  7. Diet: Certain foods, such as dairy products and foods high in carbohydrates, can contribute to the development of acne in some people.

  8. Environmental factors: Pollution, skin care products, cosmetics and even eating habits can affect skin health and cause acne.

Acne Symptoms:

The symptoms of acne vary depending on the severity and type of acne. Common symptoms include pimples, blackheads, comedones and cysts. Acne can also cause redness, pain and scarring.


Types of acne:

There are several types of acne, each with its own symptoms and characteristics:

  1. Acne vulgaris: This is the most common type of acne, which manifests itself as red pimples, blackheads and cysts. It can appear on the face, neck, back, chest and shoulders.

  2. Cystic Acne: This form of acne is characterized by deep, painful, pus-filled cysts that can leave permanent scars. It usually affects the face, but can also occur on other parts of the body.

  3. Acne rosacea: This chronic skin condition is characterized by redness on the face, pimples and dilated blood vessels. It can also cause pain and burning.

  4. Acne conglobata: This form of acne is characterized by inflamed nodules and cysts that cluster together to form large lesions. It mainly affects the chest, back and shoulders.

  5. Acne fulminans: a rare and severe form of acne that is characterized by inflammatory and painful skin lesions, fevers and joint pain.

  6. Excoriated acne: This type of acne is caused by damage to the skin from repeated scratching or pinching of the pimples.

  7. Mechanical acne: Mechanical acne develops as a result of chronic skin irritation, often caused by repeated rubbing or pressure on the skin. It appears as papules and pustules.

  8. Cosmetic acne: This type of acne is caused by the use of cosmetic products that clog pores. It appears as papules and pustules.

  9. Neonatal acne: Neonatal acne develops in newborns and is caused by maternal hormones. It appears as papules and pustules on the face and neck.

Acne treatments:

Acne treatment will depend on the severity and type of acne. There are several types of treatments for acne:

  1. Topical treatments: A skin care routine based on the type of acne, often consisting of ingredients such as salicylic acid, glycolic acid, retinol (Vitamin A) and benzoyl peroxide to treat breakouts and inflammation.

  2. Oral antibiotics: medications that help kill the bacteria that cause acne. Only prescribed by a doctor or dermatologist.

  3. Oral retinoids: medications derived from vitamin A that help prevent the formation of blackheads and reduce inflammation. Only prescribed by a doctor or dermatologist.

  4. Light-based treatments: photodynamic therapy and blue light therapy are used to kill the bacteria that cause acne.

  5. Chemical peels: the use of acids to exfoliate the skin and remove dead cells, blackheads and excess sebum.

  6. Laser treatments and resurfacing: lasers and resurfacing can reduce acne scars and reduce sebum production.

It is important to consult a specialist to determine the appropriate treatment for your type of acne.


In conclusion, acne can be a frustrating and embarrassing skin problem, but there are many effective treatments available. It is important to understand the causes and types of acne to determine the appropriate treatment. If you suffer from acne, don't hesitate to consult a specialist for personalized and effective treatment.

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